Description of product between 1912 and 1919, the Universal Film Manufacturing Company eleven women from direct ground at least 170 films, but in the mid-1920s all the directors of Universal had left and only one still working in the film industry all. Two generations of film historians have overlooked or have been hampered by the mystery of why universal first systematically supported and promoted the principals and then abruptly reversed this policy. In this pioneering study, Mark Cooper Garrett addresses the phenomenon as a case study on how companies interpret and movie studios to act in the institutional culture to decide what it means to work as a man or a woman. By focusing on issues of institutional change. . . More>>

ONCE A CIGAR MAKER: Men, Women, and Work Culture in American Cigar Factories, 1900-1919